|1873: A Year of
By Wesley Harris
Caring for yellow fever patients
|The angst experienced in
Louisiana during Reconstruction after the Civil War was
not limited to physical violence and political turmoil.
As freedmen were terrorized by their former owners,
outlaws rampaged across the state, and the carpetbag
government was under constant assault by local citizens,
north Louisiana was also imperiled by several deadly
America is fortunate to avoid most of the deadly epidemics that still afflict much of the world. Modern medical techniques, including vaccinations, have all but eliminated the most frightening diseases that once terrorized the country. But one hundred years ago, the spread of fatal illnesses instilled panic in a community like nothing else. Three contagious diseases struck the north Louisiana in 1873, the same year hundreds were slaughtered by White Leaguers in the infamous Colfax Massacre. While smallpox, cholera, and yellow fever rarely concern Americans today, they frequently ravaged communities in the 19th Century.
In Mansfield, an African American official named John Wiggins died of smallpox.
Wiggins had returned from New Orleans where he apparently contracted smallpox while caring for his brother who died from the disease. When Wiggins became ill, he and his family were taken to a house about a half mile outside Mansfield where he died.
Despite Wiggins's standing in the community, no one was willing to touch his body to bury it properly. Such was the terror created by smallpox that his friends deserted him in his death. His family left the death scene and he lay unmolested for three days. A large sum was offered to entice someone to bury him, and after much difficulty, two men agreed to take the job. He was buried near the house where he died and the building burned down.
Eventually the outbreak subsided, as all epidemics do, only to be followed by another dreaded disease.
At first, 1873's outbreak was mild and sporadic, although it ranged from New Orleans to Monroe to the northwest Louisiana hills. As summer progressed, however, the number of cases and their severity increased. Over the course of ten days, about ten persons, young and old, died on a single plantation in Concordia Parish from the dreadful disease.
By mid-July, Monroe had experienced 85 cholera deaths. A Monroe newspaper lamented that the summer had been "the sickliest known for ten years" but seemed relieved that cases were reported throughout the state and "there is no special local cause to which the sickness can be attributed." From May 1 to July 15, 25 adult males and 20 adult females died in Monroe but the disease hit children the worst with 40 deaths. Black victims outnumbered white ones 65 to 20. The number affected statewide is unknown.
The first indication of an illness began on August 20, 1873, when the Shreveport Times reported three men had died three days earlier, one dropping dead in the street.
Yellow fever was not mentioned as the cause of these deaths. A host of incorrect causes were blamed as people speculated including congestive fever, bilious fever, diarrhea, malaria, and other diseases. No one even suspected the mosquito as the mode of transmission for the deadly virus.
On the night of September 1, 1873, physicians of the city held a meeting to discuss the crisis. The following day, the cause of yellow fever was announced by the Shreveport Times. Since yellow fever had struck Shreveport twice before 1873, the population knew its dangers. As much as a third of the populace may have fled before quarantines were enforced. In her book, "The American Plague," author Molly Caldwell Crosby describes yellow fever as "the most dreaded disease in North America for two hundred years. It did not kill in numbers like cholera or smallpox, and it was not contagious; yet it created a panic and fear few other diseases, ancient or contemporary, can elicit."
The outbreak, killing as many as 33 people a day at its peak, caused a quarantine of the city and an almost total cessation of business and social life in the region. Federal troops attempting to enforce Reconstruction pulled out. People rushed to leave Shreveport by any means possible. Those who fled early toward Dallas by train were lucky, because word spread as rapidly as the disease. Texas cities soon established quarantines against Shreveport. A train was stopped at the Dallas city limits by armed citizens who told the engineer he would be shot if he continued. Cities on the Red River south of Shreveport refused to permit boats to dock.
Although yellow fever was known to be extremely virulent and fast spreading, doctors and nurses and others from towns as far away as New Orleans courageously volunteered to help Shreveport fight the epidemic. Many died.
Lieutenant Eugene Woodruff of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was working on the Red River supervising a project to clear the river of a logjam when yellow fever struck Shreveport. The dense logjam formed a formidable obstruction to river navigation.
Woodruff left his workboats and crew on the Red River to visit Shreveport to recruit a survey party. When he arrived, Woodruff learned of the yellow fever epidemic. Fearing that he might carry the disease back to his men if he returned to camp, Woodruff elected to remain in Shreveport and tend to the sick.
Volunteering his services to the Howard Association, a Louisiana disaster relief charity, Woodruff traveled house to house in his carriage, delivering food, medicine, and good cheer to the sick and dying. He contracted yellow fever himself and died in Shreveport on September 30.
Woodruff's commanding officer wrote, "He died because he was too brave to abandon his post even in the face of fearful pestilence, and too humane to let his fellow beings perish without give all the aid in his power to save them. His name should be cherished, not only by his many personal friends, but by the Army, as one who loved purely, labored faithfully, and died in the path of duty "
Five Catholic priests died nursing the sick, including one from Monroe and one from Natchitoches. Two nuns, members of the Daughters of the Cross, from St. Vincents Academy who volunteered to minister to the sick also died. These servants have been memorialized in wall portraits and stained glass windows of the Holy Trinity Church at the corner of Fannin and Marshall Streets in downtown Shreveport.
A quarter of Shreveport's population that remained died of the disease. The cases numbered close to 3,000 with about 1,000 deaths. Many families were wiped out completely. Most of the dead were relatively young and healthy. The epidemic led to the establishment of a board of health in Shreveport and completion of a charity hospital.
Nearly 800 of the victims are buried in "Yellow Fever Mound" in Shreveport's Oakland Cemetery. While America's health issues still exist, they present themselves in different forms, sometimes related to lifestyle and bad habits. Substantial strides in medicine and sanitation have largely defeated the insidious communicable diseases that once claimed unsuspecting victims.
Wesley Harris is a native of Ruston. Among his books are FISH OUT OF WATER: Nazi Submariners as POWs During World War II in North Louisiana and GREETINGS FROM RUSTON: A Post Card History of Ruston, Louisiana, available from amazon.com. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org . Check out his Louisiana history blog at http://diggingthepast.blogspot.com .